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Saute

Literally means "to jump". To quickly fry foods in a little fat, usually oil or butter, in an open skillet over medium-high to high heat, turning or tossing often, until tender and lightly browned, as dictated by the recipe.


Scald

To heat milk or cream to a temperature just before it boils.


Scallop

To bake a food, usually in a casserole, with sauce or other liquid. Crumbs often are sprinkled over.


Scooping

To shape a fruit, vegetable and icecream in spherical shape for decorative food presentations, using a scooper.


Score

To cut slits into foods before cooking for various purposes, including decoration, ease of cutting after cooking or tenderization. Also, the fat layer of a large cut of meat is often scored so that some of the fat melts out during roasting.


Sear

To cook meats quickly on all sides over high heat to brown and seal in the juices. The meat should not be turned until it is well browned on each side or it will stick to the pan.


Seed

To remove the seeds from fruits and vegetables.


Shallow Frying

To cook food in a pan with little fat / oil so that only bottom and side surfaces of the food are immersed, hence this method ensures excellent colour and crispness to the fried product.


Shred

To cut, slice or tear into thin strips. Also, to pull apart very tender cooked meats, usually with a fork.


Sieve

To strain liquids or particles of food through a sieve or strainer. Press the solids, using a ladle or wooden spoon, into the strainer to remove as much liquid and flavor as possible.


Sift

To pass a dry ingredient through a sifter, or fine mesh screen, to loosen the particles, incorporate air, and lighten the resulting product. Also, used to combine several ingredients that are passed through at the same time. The same result may be accomplished by using a wire whisk to stir the ingredients in a bowl. If a recipe calls for presifted ingredients, sift first and then measure. If it calls for a certain amount of the ingredient, sifted, measure first.


Simmer

To cook gently just below the boiling point. If the food starts boiling, the heat is too high and should be reduced.

Skewer To spear small pieces of food on long, thin, pointed rods called skewers


Skim

To remove impurities, whether scum or fat, from the surface of a liquid during cooking, thereby resulting in a clear, cleaner-tasting final produce.. This is normally done by passing a flat spoon over the surface, just underneath the substance to discard. In the case of fat, if you have the time, chill the liquid first so that the fat congeals, making it very easy to remove.


Skin

To remove the skin from food before or after cooking. Poultry, fish and game are often skinned for reasons of appearance, taste and diet.


Slice

Cutting any ingredient into thin pieces lengthwise.


Slit

Putting a cut on a food object in a manner such that the opposite side remains intact the opening allows filling of spices etc.


Sliver To cut into long thin pieces with a knife. Often used with almonds or pimentos.


Smoke

To expose fresh food to smoke from a wood fire for a prolonged period of time. Traditionally used for preservation purposes, smoking is now a means of giving flavor to food.


Soften

To fry gently until transparent and no longer crisp


Spatchcocking

A French technique of butter-flying a whole chicken by removing the backbone so you can open it up flat, like a book, and cook it using direct heat. Because the spatchcocked chicken cooks over fiery hot coals, the process cuts the grilling time almost in half and helps keep the meat moist.


Steam

A method of cooking foods over, not in, hot liquid, usually water. The heat cooks the food while the vapors keep it moist. Steaming is a good alternative to boiling because none of the nutrients or flavor is lost in the liquid. Food can also be steamed in a microwave.


Steep

To soak a food in liquid for a given amount of time. Sometimes, the liquid is hot, as in tea. Other times, as with macerated fruit, the liquid is cold or room temperature.

Sterilize To destroy micro organisms by boiling, dry heat, or steam.


Stew

To cook foods slowly in a specified amount of liquid in a covered pot or pan.


Stir

To move foods around with a spoon in a circular motion. Stirring is done to move foods when cooking. It is also used to cool foods after cooking. Most importantly, if a recipes calls for stirring to combine foods, such as a batter, before cooking, it usually means to gently mix just until well combined, as opposed to beating, which takes more strokes.


Stir-fry

To quickly cook foods over high or medium-high heat in a lightly oiled skillet or wok, stirring or tossing constantly, until desired or specified doneness.


Strain

To pass a liquid or moist mixture through a colander, sieve or cheese cloth to remove solid particles.

Supreme To remove the flesh sections of citrus fruit from the membranes


Sweat

To cook foods, usually chopped vegetables, over medium heat until they exude some of their moisture which, in turn, steams and softens the food without browning.

TEdit

Temper

Technically, to moderate. In cooking, tempering most often refers to slightly warming beaten eggs, by rapidly stirring a little of the hot ingredients into them, before adding them to the hot mixture so that they will combine, stirring rapidly again, without solidifying. It also refers to the softening of a heavy mixture before folding in a whipped mixture, so that incorporation occurs without deflation.

Tenderize

To make meat more tender by pounding with a mallet, marinating for varying periods of time, or storing at lower temperatures. Fat may also be placed into a piece of meat to make it more tender during cooking.

Toast

Most commonly, to brown using a dry heat source such as an oven or toaster. However, many recipes call for toasting seeds, nuts, grains or spices before mixing with other ingredients to add flavor. They may be toasted in an oven or in a skillet, with or without oil, using a low heat, stirring or tossing often, until nicely browned, being very careful not to burn.

Toss

To combine ingredients by gently turning over until blended. Most commonly refers to a salad, but is used for many other preparations. The easiest and most efficient way to toss is with a good pair of tongs. Alternately, two spoons, forks or one of each may be used.

Trim

To remove excess or unwanted element of a food item or making it lean. Like removal of fat portion in meat or fish.

Truss

To shape food into a desired form and secure with butcher's twine or skewers. Most commonly used with poultry or meats. In the case of poultry, it is questionable whether or not it should be trussed because, although it gives a nice look to the bird after cooking, the breast tends to cook faster than the legs, thighs and wings.


U - VEdit

Vandyke

To cut zigzags in edges of fruit and vegetables halves, usually oranges, tomatoes or lemons. The food is usually used as a garnish to decorate a dish.

WEdit

Whip

To beat briskly with a wire whisk or electric mixer to incorporate air, which in turn adds volume. Usually used in reference to cream or egg whites. To whip cream, which has fat, always chill the bowl, beaters and cream first. Egg whites, which are mostly water, should be whipped at room temperature.

Whisk

To mix to the specified state with a wire beater, also called a whisk. Whisking can refer to blending, beating, emulsifying, or whipping, depending on the recipe.


X - Y - ZEdit

Zest

To grate the outer, colored portion of the skin of a citrus fruit, avoiding the white pith. The thin parings that result are also called the zest.

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